Gladstone’s Land – Travelling through time in the Royal Mile

The golden “gled”, Scots for hawk – perhaps the meaning of Gledstaine

Recently I went on a guided tour of the National Trust for Scotland’s Gladstone’s Land on the Royal Mile. My tour guide was David, our informative and enthusiastic volunteer . He gave us fascinating facts, stories and insights as we walked through this 17thcentury tenement.

The Royal Mile in the 1600s

Arches from the 1600s. You reach the apartments via the stairway on the left.

We started the tour outside, under Edinburgh’s only surviving 17thcentury arched store frontage.  It’s quite something to imagine the hustle and bustle of Edinburgh in the 1600s. People would along the markets on the mile and buy their wares from under these arches.  There was a quality grocer and a cloth shop on the ground floor. The basement housed a tavern – I suppose the equivalent of our coffee shops today – especially people thought beer was safer than water!

Spices were a rich man’s treasure
magnificent bed head

My first discovery was just how crowded the Royal Mile was at that time.  It was very much des res for the wealthy, at least on the middle floors, with the poorer taking up the top and bottom floors.  Gladstone, however, built his land for rich tenants, as you can see by its opulent décor.  The extensions along the narrow closes were testament to the shortage of housing and the desirability of the area.  This six-storey building was once considered a skyscraper. Later, buildings of thirteen storeys extended down the steep banks towards what is now Princes Street gardens. The difference in population density between the upper and lower halves of the Royal Mile is quite stunning.  People wanted to live near the Castle, in the Lawnmarket, because it was within the city walls. Down towards Holyrood Palace was the Canongate, and it wasn’t part of Edinburgh City.

The Royal Mile – the black vertical lines are the buildings along the closes – quite a contrast to the leafy suburbs of the Canongate!

When merchant Thomas Gladstone built his tenement block for rental, it was not only a sign of his commercial success (and fortuitous marriage!) It also qualified as a very Nice Little Earner! Edinburgh was at one time the most densely populated city on Earth!

The wooden shuttered half windows show the high price of glass at the time

Stepping back in time

Vivid, sumptuous ceiling beams – perhaps with hidden meaning?

Inside the building, the painted ceiling beams are vivid and clear after many decades hidden from daylight by plaster coverings.  There are still a few wall drawings to see (found underneath 14 layers of paint!) The NTS has made some new impressions to give a better idea of the surroundings.

Walls would have been decorated in this style

The number of people living in such small spaces is hard to conceive of by today’s standards, especially given the lack of running water and sewage facilities.  The stories of  “Gardyloo” give a quite different meaning to Edinburgh’s nickname of “Auld Reekie”.

Changes as the New Town develops

There’s also a room that goes “forward” in time to the 1800s. Most of the wealthy had decanted to the New Town to the North of Princes Street, but some still kept a pied-a-terre for business purposes.  Quite a change in lifestyle – but not for the poor who were left in the Old Town as it became more and more cramped and squalid.

Painting from the 1800s. As was the custom for rich people of the time, the artist came and painted the landscape directly on to the wall.

How to visit

Interesting footwear – and more practical than they seem!

I’ll not steal David’s thunder by telling his stories. But finding out about Witch Prickers, open plan loos and strangely designed footwear are just some of the reasons to visit Gladstone’s Land.  There’s also a link to the Darien Company, whose failure led to the 1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England.  Thank goodness the National Trust for Scotland rescued this building from demolition in 1934!

Gladstone’s Land is a short 19 minute stroll from Anthemion Apartment Edinburgh, or you can go by bus in 13 minutes by taking the 23 or 27.

Visits are free for National Trust for Scotland members.  In high season, it’s worth booking your tour in advance, as places are taken up very quickly.

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Remembrance Day 100 years

Remembrance Day 100 years

Knitted and crocheted flowers from the Liberton Kirk steeple.

In the Great War, the War to End All Wars, 1914-1918, ended with an armistice on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. In the UK, on the one year anniversary of the armistice, King George V held the first official armistice events in the grounds of Buckingham Palace, and at that time marked the first 2-minute silence.

WWI soldier’s hat in moving memorial

Nowadays, Remembrance Sunday in the UK is the Sunday nearest to Armistice Day. The day changed in 1939 when, at the beginning of World War II the UK government moved it so that it would not interfere with production.  So in the UK the traditional 2-minute silence in remembrance, now, of all killed or wounded ex-servicemen and women, happens at 11am on Remembrance Sunday.

Fittingly, on this 100th anniversary of the first armistice, Remembrance Day falls on 11th November.

There is also a tradition of wearing poppies and of laying poppy wreaths at our war memorials. For more information on poppies in Edinburgh, look at my blog post.

Liberton Kirk

In Edinburgh, some exceptional memorials have been created this year to mark the 100 year anniversary. At Liberton Kirk a beautiful display of 16000 knitted, crocheted and paper flowers adorns the church, created and sent from countries around the world. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As I was taking photos, I met one of the ladies who, with her group, had knitted 400 of these poppies.  These knitters and crocheters have put a lot of work and dedication to create this astounding scene. The display will continue until Sunday 18 November – you can take a 25 minute bus ride on the 67 bus from the Mound at Princes Street to see it. 

Scott Monument

On Princes Street, beside the Scott monument, rows of crosses reminiscent of the gravestones in northern France, each with a poppy, represent the dead and wounded of war.

This is organised by Poppy Scotland, and I had the honour of talking to two of our ex-servicemen when I visited the memorial.

Two proud ex-servicemen, from same company and regiment. Serviced in Egypt, Aden and Korea.

Visitors are invited to dedicate on of the crosses to a dear one killed or wounded in war.

To commemorate the 100 year anniversary, there will be a concert of remembrance at the Assembly Rooms at 7:30pm on Friday, 9 November. You can buy tickets here.

 

This year, the Remembrance parade, led by war veterans, will leave Edinburgh Castle at 10:30.  After laying wreaths at the stone of remembrance outside Edinburgh City Chambers, the parade will continue to a service in St Giles Cathedral.  It is open to the public, and begins at 11:30am. The Edinburgh Castle gun will fire at 11:00am and 11:02am to mark the start and end of the silence.

 

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.

– Robert L. Binyon

 

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Craigmillar: The Other Edinburgh Castle

Everyone who knows Scotland knows about the Castle at the top of the Royal Mile. But what about the castle, three miles southeast of Edinburgh, that looks upon its more famous neighbour?  Craigmillar Castle has plenty of stories to tell!

The castle viewed from the west

Craigmillar Castle

The modernised west range

Recently we had a wee explore of Craigmillar Castle. The oldest part of the castle dates back to the early 1400s, and over the next 250 years the owners extended and developed it. It has links to the tragic Mary, Queen of Scots.  She came here after the murder of her secretary and rumoured lover, David Rizzio. It was here, too, that others plotted to kill her husband, Lord Darnley

Pretty eerie dungeon, complete with en-suite!

 

I just loved that I was able to delve into the different areas of the castle. It was fun to imagine what they must have been like at the time. There are some pretty good information boards, but for children and the young-at-heart, climbing winding staircases, and stepping into old dungeons is a fun activity in itself!

 

 

 

Extensions and mod cons

The castle itself probably began with the Tower House, still in existence.  The then owners, the Prestons, built it in 1400. There are quite a number of coats of arms and other signs of their tenure. Then in 1440 the grandson built the fortress-like walls that surround the ancient castle. In 1510 another family member built the less military-looking outer walls, enclosing a much bigger garden.

The banquet hall. To the right, a lovely seating area at the window

In 1544 the English captured the castle (along with its unfortunate laird!) They further extended the building with an east range, and it was here that Mary, Queen of Scots likely stayed.

In the mid 17th century, the Prestons sold the castle to the Gilmours, who built the west range. However, they wanted modernity and comfort that the castle couldn’t provide.  They abandoned it and went off to their nearby new-build, Inch House. (It’s still around too, and the locals use it as a community centre.)

The Castle Today

The inner courtyard

Amazingly, a lot of the castle still survives and it is a great place to visit and explore. A great family outing or one just to savour on your own!

The climb up to the top of the tower is worth it for the views – across the forth, over Edinburgh Castle, towards Arthur’s Seat – fabulous!

View from Craigmillar to Edinburgh Castle and Arthur’s Seat

 

From Anthemion, it takes about 20 minutes by car. There’s also a bus to the nearby royal infirmary (No 24 from Howe Street) that leaves every 30 minutes. Craigmillar Castle is now run by Historic Scotland, who also run Edinburgh Castle, and members have free admission.

Prices and Availability

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Calton Hill Part 1: the Nelson Monument

Calton Hill

Nelson Monument Calton Hill
Nelson Monument from St Andrews House

 

Calton Hill in Edinburgh is at the west end of Princes Street, just a short walk away from Anthemion in New Town, and you’ll get your reward for the wee climb to get to the top. There are a number of historic monuments and 360º views.  It’s an excellent way to get the lay of the land and to see several of Edinburgh’s seven hills.

Calton Hill Nelson Monument
Calton Hill with the Nelson Monument, from North Bridge

Nelson Monument

Make sure you don’t miss a visit to the Nelson Monument. It was built between 1807 and 1815 to commemorate Nelson’s victory and death at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. (Around 20% of the military in the Battle were Scots.  10-year-old John Doig from Leith was among them, and was the youngest crew member). The monument sits on the highest point at Calton Hill.  Its original purpose was as a signal mast to the sailors in the port of Leith. As you climb the 143 steps to the gallery at the top, you can see why!

Holyrood Nelson Monument Calton Hill
View of the Palace of Holyrood House from the Nelson Monument

Calton Hill Nelson Monument
View from the Burns Monument

The city fathers discussed the design of the monument at length, and wrestled with the inevitable funding problems.  They finally settled on architect Robert Burn’s design. He modelled the monument on an upturned telescope. The castellations on top of the monument mirrored those of the notorious Calton Jail, which was on the south of the hill.

Calton Burial Ground Jail
The Governor’s House – all that remains of Calton Jail

Money was tight, so when Mrs Kerr, the widow of a petty officer, leased the monument to set up a tea room, she helped provide the necessary funding to complete the job.

The Time Ball

In 1853, the city added the time ball. It signalled the time to the sailors who set their chronometers by its rise and fall, and were thus able to calculate longitude more precisely. Originally, the clock in the nearby City Observatory (about which, more in future!) triggered the clock via an underground wire.   The ball rises just before 1pm and falls at exactly 1pm. Because on foggy days the sailors could not see the ball, the authorities established the one o’clock gun at Edinburgh Castle so that the signal could be heard if not seen. The two were synchronised via a very long telegraph wire between Calton Hill and the Castle. For 150 years the ball faithfully fulfilled its role, until a storm damaged it in 2007.

Nelson Monument Calton Hill Inverleith Park
Nelson Monument from Inverleith Park

 

The City of Edinburgh Council and restored the monument in 2009 and the ball was repaired, and you can still see it in operation today.Ritchie & Son Clockmakers have had the responsibility of operating the ball since 1852 and continue to this day.

Trafalgar Day

On Trafalgar Day, 21 October, every year, the city runs flags with the message that Nelson set out at the start of the battle: “England expects that every man will do his duty”. On a slightly more down-to-earth matter, Holyrood Palace has also used flags from the monument when they signalled the cancellation of royal garden parties due to rain!

Edinburgh's Folly view leith bass rock
Edinburgh’s Folly, Port of Leith, and even Bass Rock! from the Monument

If you’re fit to climb the stairs, it’s well worth a visit.  The views are unparalleled.  It’s open all year round.

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